*imports*.

Let us suppose there are 101 countries and everyone imports \$100 worth of goods from each of the 100 different partner countries, so that each country imports a total of \$10,000 worth of goods. Now suppose that my current depreciates, say, 10% so that everyone else’s currency appreciates

At first blush it seems that this implies a 0.05% reduction in my imports. After all, if every partner country reduces their exports to every other country by 0.05%, then my imports must fall by 0.05%– almost too small to measure.

But this ignores the fact that my partner countries exchange rates did not appreciate with each other. When each partner loses 0.05% of exports, that partner reduces exports to

*me*by \$5 and exports to

*the rest of the world*by \$0. Thus, my total imports from all countries falls by \$500, or 5% of my initial imports.

Which is to say, I do not understand the position that the reduction in real imports due to depreciation is “formally correct but practically and empirically irrelevant.”

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